Sabtu, 26 Januari 2013

Modulasi


Modulasi adalah proses perubahan (varying) suatu gelombang periodik sehingga menjadikan suatu sinyal mampu membawa suatu informasi. Dengan proses modulasi, suatu informasi (biasanya berfrekeunsi rendah) bisa dimasukkan ke dalam suatu gelombang pembawa, biasanya berupa gelombang sinus berfrekuensi tinggi. Terdapat tiga parameter kunci pada suatu gelombang sinusiuodal yaitu : amplitudo, fase dan frekuensi. Ketiga parameter tersebut dapat dimodifikasi sesuai dengan sinyal informasi (berfrekuensi rendah) untuk membentuk sinyal yang termodulasi.
Peralatan untuk melaksanakan proses modulasi disebutmodulator, sedangkan peralatan untuk memperoleh informasi informasi awal (kebalikan dari dari proses modulasi) disebut demodulator dan peralatan yang melaksanakan kedua proses tersebut disebut modem.
Informasi yang dikirim bisa berupa data analog maupun digital sehingga terdapat dua jenis modulasi yaitu
  • modulasi analaog
  • modulasi digital

Modulasi Analog

Dalam modulasi analog, proses modulasi merupakan respon atas informasi sinyal analog.
Teknik umum yang dipakai dalam modulasi analog :
  • Modulasi berdasarkan sudut
    • Modulasi Fase (Phase Modulation – PM)
    • Modulasi Frekuensi (Frequency Modulatio – FM)
  • Modulasi Amplitudo (Amplitudo Modulation – AM)
    • Double-sideband modulation with unsuppressed carrier (used on the radio AM band)
    • Double-sideband suppressed-carrier transmission (DSB-SC)
    • Double-sideband reduced carrier transmission (DSB-RC)
    • Single-sideband modulation (SSB, or SSB-AM), very similar to single-sideband suppressed carrier modulation (SSB-SC)
    • Vestigial-sideband modulation (VSB, or VSB-AM)
    • Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)

Modulasi Digital

Dalam modulasi digital, suatu sinyal analog di-modulasi berdasarkan aliran data digital.
Perubahan sinyal pembawa dipilih dari jumlah terbatas simbol alternatif. Teknik yang umum dipakai adalah :
  • Phase Shift Keying (PSK), digunakan suatu jumlah terbatas berdasarkan fase.
  • Frekeunsi Shift Keying (FSK), digunakan suatu jumlah terbatas berdasarkan frekuensi.
  • Amplitudo Shift Keying (ASK), digunakan suatu jumlah terbatas amplitudo.



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